東京藝術大学 大学院 音楽音響創造



CHO Eun – byul
Research on the comparison of Electronic music in Japan and Korea

Electronic music is a natural result of the advances in technology. Originally born in Europe, electronic music must have developed in a
slightly different way in Asia which has it is distinct Asian culture and thoughts. It is the purpose of this paper to look at how electronic music was embraced and developed in Asia through its histories in Japan and Korea.

Above all, this paper would look at how each composer representing each country took his thoughts when composing his piece. In addition, this paper would also focus on how Electronic music was taught up to this point in each country by comparing the school curricula of the countries’ major universities.

By looking at the aspects this paper seeks to study, it would be
possible to look at just where the Asian electronic music stands in the world. What’s more, this paper would provide the direction the Asian electronic music is heading.


恵谷 隆英

本研究は、以下の3つの目的のもと行われた。第一に、グルーヴ感と関連する言葉を調査する こと。第二に、グルーヴ感の評価と関連する音響特性の調査すること。第三に、グルーヴ感の評価と音響特性の関連性を示すモデル式を提案することである。 

初めに6人の打楽器奏者、ドラマーを対象とした刺激の録音を行った。録音にはライドシンバ ルを用い、奏者は指定された5種類のテンポにおいて、それぞれ64打点ずつ演奏するように指示 した。演奏直前にメトロノームによってテンポを 20 秒間提示し、演奏中にはメトロノームによるガイドはなかった。録音後、各64打点のうち中心の 32 打点を抽出し、IOI(隣接する打点と打点の時間間隔)の平均値、IOIの標準偏差、IOIの変化率の平均値、IOIの変化率の標準偏差、音圧の変化率の平均値、音圧の変化率の標準偏差、打点の立ち上がり時間の平均値、打点の立ち上が りの標準偏差、スペクトル重心を音響特性として抽出した。 

次に、三個組法、SD法を用い、刺激の「音楽的側面」に注目した評価語の抽出を行った。刺激には録音された刺激が使用された。その結果、6種類の評価語対、“速い-遅い”、“軽い-重い”、“揺れがある-揺れがない”、“リズムが安定している-リズムが不安定”、“人間的な-機械的な”、 “テンポが安定している -テンポが不安定”が抽出された。 

次に、SD 法を用いた評価実験を行い、グルーヴ感と関連する言葉の調査を行った。結果、“グルーヴ感がある-グルーヴ感がない”と最も高い相関係数を見せたのは、“好き-嫌い”であり、“揺れがある-揺れがない”、“人間的-機械的”がそれに続いた。よって、グルーヴ感のある演奏は、揺れがあり、人間的な演奏であると解釈される。また、グルーヴ感のある演奏は好まれる傾向にあると解釈された。 

最後に、グルーヴ感の評価を従属変数、音響特性の値を独立変数とした重回帰分析を行い、グルーヴ感と関連する音響特性の調査、及びグルーヴ感の評価と音響特性の関連性を表すモデル式を求めた。結果、IOIの標準偏差、IOIの変化率の平均値、音圧の変化率の平均値が有意にグルーヴ感の評価に寄与していることが明らかとなった。また、重回帰分析の結果、以下のモデル式が提案された。ΦsdをIOI の標準偏差、ΔΦaをIOIの変化率の平均値、ΔRMSaを音圧の変化率の平均値、ATa を立ち上がり時間の平均値とする。 

y =  -48.5Φsd + 30.3ΔΦa – 13.9ΔRMSa + 25.2ATa – 42.2      (1) 

ETANI Takahide

A study was conducted to investigate words related to groove, the acoustical characteristics related to groove, and to suggest a model formula representing the relationship between the rating of groove and the acoustical characteristics. 

First, stimuli were recorded as played by six percussionists and drummers. For the recordings, ride cymbal was used, and the performers were asked to play 64 times at (including?) five various tempos. Before playing, the tempo was presented for 20 seconds by metronome, whereas no metronomic guidance was provided during the recording. After the recording session, the middle 32 attacks were extracted, and the average of interonset-interval (IOI), standard deviation of IOI, the average of IOI-variation, the standard deviation of IOI-variation, the average of amplitude-variation, the standard deviation of amplitude-variation, the average of attack time, the standard deviation of attack time, and the spectral centroid of each stimulus were extracted. (This list is probably too long, but I wouldn’t worry about it.) 

Then, assessment terms for evaluating temporal aspects of music were elicited by conducting experiments using a method based on the Repertory Grid Technique. The recorded isochronous playings were used as stimuli. As a result, six pairs of “fast – slow”, “light – heavy”, “wavy – not wavy”, “rhythm is steady – rhythm is not steady”, “human – machinery”, “tempo is steady – tempo is not steady” were elicited as assessment terms. 

An evaluation experiment based on the Semantic Differential method was conducted using eight assessment terms including the six terms stated above, to investigate words related to groove. As a result, “like – dislike” had the strongest correlation with “groovy – not groovy“, followed by “wavy – not wavy”, and “human – machinery”. Therefore, groove could be explained as something wavy and human, and it could be said that people tend to like performances with groove. 

Lastly, multiple regression analysis was conducted using the previous data to investigate the relationship between groove and acoustical characteristics and to provide a model formula representing the relationship between groove rating and acoustical characteristics. As a result, the standard deviation of IOI, the average of Il-variation, and the average of amplitude variation significantly contributed to the groove rating. Furthermore, the following model formula was provided, in which y represents the groove rating (one point to sevenpoints), IOIsd represents the standard deviation of Φsd, ΔΦa represents the average of IOI-variation, ΔRMSa represents the average of amplitude-ratio, and ATa represents the average of attack time. 

y =  -48.5Φsd + 30.3ΔΦa – 13.9ΔRMSa + 25.2ATa – 42.2   (2) 


深水 悠子








Eric Satie’s history of Acceptance in Japan

From 19th century to 20th, from the perspective of music history, the classical French music was deemed the transitional period. Almost all the composers in France was searching the new musical form, on the other hand, Eric Satie followed his own path without caring about them. I thought that the originality of Satie’s ideology will also have so many things should be paid attention to the history of acceptance.

The aim of this thesis is to prove clearly that after Satie was introduced at first in Japan, how Satie’s work, ideology and personality were infiltrated into society. Moreover, I reveal the acceptance in detail by including the circumstances of Japan behind the acceptance. I divide period into three, 1, before the war, 2, after John Cage appeared, 3, from 70’s to Satie’s boom in 80’s, and survey the feature of acceptance in different periods.

By reason of prior researches about Satie being stored so far, I’d like to investigate the real figure of acceptance with surveying whole aspect based on these. On the other hand, I do not aim at listing up the prior researches and the facts, I try to examine Satie’s authentic viewpoint toward art, and link to the acceptance.

Through these researches, I arrive at one conclusion. First I point out the universality of Satie’s ideology. It shall be provided by the fact that Satie was reevaluated, the various aspects that Satie has were focused on in each period. As one of the feature of acceptance, Satie’s ideology has been accepted not only music field but also literature and art fields. It shows that Satie pursued own ideology and tried to find out the essence of not only music but also art and fact.


上水樽 力



Study of Composing Methods of Scott Bradley for Animation Music

Scott Bradley was a composer who is known for the cartoon animation music of Metro Goldwin Mayer. His composing methods followed as an extension of Musical-styled animation that had been the fashion of American cartoon animation music since “Steamboat Willie” was released, and his methods marked the climax of this style. Not only is the soundtrack strictly synchronized with the animation, but is also always under control. The purpose of this thesis is to reveal his methods from a macro perspective of his music, because his music is often analyzed from the point of view of micro composition methods for humor and violence.

The composing idea of Scott Bradley was to improve animation music as art music, and to realize this idea by composing animation music in the style of the symphonic poem. Cartoon animation music of the 1930’s was a medley of pop song and classical music which was related to elements of the animation. It does not mean this composition style was very creative, but it is important that his career of composition began in this style, and that he might have found elements of the symphonic poem form. His production shows his artistic ideas for animation music, and we can discover that by analyzing his concert piece, “Cartoonia”. This idea of symphonic poem style is applied to his animation music, especially the music for “Puss Gets the Boot”.

However his idea of symphonic poem is only applicable for the lyric animation style of 1930’s, because of the later need for humor and violence. In the animation of the 1940’s, it is not applicable. To follow this style of animation, Bradley devised a composing technique named “Shock Chord”. This is a technique that produces sounds that imitate sound effects and action by using instruments. It developed in relationships to composition technique of art music of the same period. Most previous studies analyze this technique only as a descriptive technique, but I focus on the independence of this technique, and analyze it as element that can work as a theme in music. In fact, this thesis shows that twelve-tone scale and other contemporary techniques of composition which he used seem to be themes or motives in the animation music. This fact suggests that “Shock Chord” was used not only for descriptive technique, but also to extend his idea of the symphonic poem style.


李 英姿







Li Yingzi
About the receptivity & development of Electronic Music in China

As we are aware, when compared to Japan, the history of electronic music in China is much later. As far as I’m concerned, it is quite necessary to further study the history of electronic music especially in developed countries, so as to improve the electronic music of our own country. Besides, due to the effect of Chinese, the Japanese also have characterized a lot. Thus, in order to catch up with the development of Japanese and European electronic music, I think it is also very essential to study the Japanese electronic music. By means of conducting research on electronic music in China, we will not only be able to introduce to Japanese  researchers about the current situation of electronic music in China, but also can provide the previous research material to them.


平井 快武




HIRAI Yasutake
About Automatic performance & accompaniment of Keyboard instruments

Ever since BC, there are various kinds of automatic performance instruments being developed. The most of them are keyboard instruments. Without any finger touch, the keyboard is able to action and play music automatically. They look like magical machines and they began playing the role of music playback apparatuses before other sound recording apparatus such as records and CDs.

In the 20th century, with the development of electric or electronic musical instruments, automatic performance had carried a stage further to a new position which called “automatic accompaniment”. This is a system that can not only simply playback music, but also can synchronize with human live performance. Particularly after the development of computer programs, automatic accompaniment has been improved a lot with high level functions. In addition, currently new automatic accompaniment function which is characterized with the newest technology is under development.

This paper is aiming on turning our concentration towards those histories and showing how those functions have been used until now. Furthermore, as far as I’m concerned, it is essential to study whether there is any future development possibility in it as well.


駒井 一輝



KOMAI Kazuki
Analytical Studies in the Early Stages of Luciano Berio’s Orchestral Works

Luciano Berio (1925 – 2003, Italy) was a composer who led the post-war music movement alongside Ligeti György, Pierre Boulez, and Karlheinz Stockhausen. He mastered avant-garde and standard styles such as neoclassicism, twelve-tone music, total serialism, electroacoustic music, space music, and aleatory music and finally came to create his own original music using musical quotations and a commentary technique.

In this thesis I will clarify Berio’s musical thinking across the early stages of his life and career. I will also analyze his compositions that use ‘series’ in the early 1950s. These will include; (Cinque Variazioni) (1952-53), Chamber Music) (1953), and (Nones) (1953 – 54). Following this analysis I will argue that these works have the following three features in common. The first, is a change in his use of the “third interval.” The second, is the influence of “electroacoustic music” on his works. The last, is his application of the concept of an “dialectic between orderly and disorderly.” Finally, I will suggest that the “Aura” in his compositions was developed through a focus on a theoretical framework and a lack of focus though a departure from this framework. Also, that it was developed as a consequence of the interwoven nature of his ideological and biographical background, and his composition technique.


朴 炫熙



PARK Hyeonhee
Sonification As Compositional Technique

Sonification is a systematic, objective, and reproducible system that interprets some information via a non-speech acoustic signal. As the field develops rapidly, diverse theories and hypotheses are emerging without general agreement. In addition, its scientific methodologies and theoretical concepts are growing in their application to related disciplines including music. Particularly in the field of electroacoustic music, composers are increasingly adopting sonification into their works. One then might question what significant relations there exist between sonification and music and why sonification needs to be (or can be) applied to music and vice versa. It would not be a constructive answer to reduce the amalgamation of the two cultural phenomena to mere shared technologies.

Therefore, in this thesis, we investigate the relationship between sonification and music from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. To better understand the multi-faceted field, we overview the past studies on sonification in terms of its history, definition, theory, and technology and establish a working aesthetic framework, based on which important instances of sonification-music and musical sonification are examined.


木本 圭祐






KIMOTO Keisuke
Electric Instruments as Post Electronic Instruments

Instruments have been produced by being improved through the request of music in various periods in history and in various countries, in the process of musical technological evolution, through various changes in the way how music is consumed and so on. This thesis primarily intends to show that in the history of newly produced instruments after the 20th century, “electric instruments” powered by electricity are “post electronic instruments” which are affected by instruments called “new instruments” and give an indication to solve the problem
facing the new instruments.

First of all, as a stage prior to the discussion about the electric instruments I start with an overview of the history of the new instruments and discuss how the advent of the new instruments affected the instruments and music. Telharmonium, which was invented by Thaddeus Cahill in 1906, topped the list of the new instruments. Compared with the traditional acoustic instruments, those new instruments are totally different in the point that the interface and the sound generator are separated. This separation enabled instruments to introduce various ways of performance and sound generation, which promoted the production of many new instruments and new musical expression. The separation, however, brought not only advantage but also many problems. The traditional instruments generate sound by the way of the interface contacting the sound generator directly or indirectly. So the relation between the performance and the sound generated by them are easily recognized. On the other hand, in the new instruments the relation between the interface and the sound generator are complicated and you can’t appreciate them in the same perspective as the traditional instruments. This is one of the biggest problems facing the new instruments. So I focus on this problem and compare them with the electric instruments.

Next, I cite 《Tsukuba series》 by MeiwaDenki, 《Zombie music)》by Taro Yasuno, and 《Drome》by Keisuke Kimoto as examples which seem to show some solutions to the problem of the complexity between the performance and the sound generation facing the new instruments, and then discuss the difference between the automatic playing instruments and the electric instruments which are similar in structure.

Last of all, I discuss how those examples relate to the problem facing the new instruments separately. I conclude that electric instruments get to the answer to the problem in the way of showing the complex relation between performance and sound generation clearly. It is possible because they introduce various far-famed elements from the fields of music, instruments or the fields unrelated to music into themselves. In this process they also give a new perspective to the new instruments and music.

In conclusion, the electric instruments are the “post electronic instruments” which come into existence by introducing various elements into themselves under the influence of the new instruments and they produce new values not only to the instruments but also to music.


芳澤 奏






Influence of player piano upon compositional technique with a focus on Nancarrow

The purpose of this thesis is to examine the technical influences of the player piano upon compositional concepts in piano music. This study will review works for player piano from a compositional viewpoint, mainly by analyzing works composed by Nancarrow, who composed more than 50 pieces for the instrument. In addition, through analyzing György Ligeti’ s Études for Piano, I will provide a study of Nancarrow’ s influence on other contemporary classical music composers.

Chapter 1 will be primarily concerned with the player piano instrument itself. In the early 20th century, the player piano garnered a huge amount of popularity in America and Europe ; due to several reasons, however, it rapidly went out of vogue in the 1920s. In this chapter, I will survey not only the instrumental structure and technological development of the player piano, but also its historical role in the Western music society of the period.

Chapter 2 will be an inspection of early works for player piano in the early 20th century written by Igor Stravinsky, George Antheil, Ernst Toch, and Paul Hindemith. It should be noted that the relationship between music and technology dramatically changed as the aforementioned composers began introducing the player piano into their own works during this period.

In Chapter 3, I will review new possibilities in compositional technique by analyzing Nancarrow’ s player piano pieces written in his unique, canonic and polyrhythmic musical language; that which goes beyond the performer’ s physical limit.

Chapter 4 will contain an analysis of Ligeti’ s Études for Piano, composed as a result of influences from Nancarrow’s compositions. Ligeti found not only new possibilities for the piano through Nancarrow’s music, but also, he succeeded in creating new music utilizing maximal human physical ability – in other words, that which overcame the limit of a traditional performer.

Every time composers introduce a new instrument into their works, the technical and technological aspect of the instrument affects their artistic language. The possibilities of the player piano also stimulated a large number of musicians and urged composers to create new music with unique techniques that broke with the long tradition of classical contemporary music.